In this project we use ic 89c2051 is a main processor. IC 89c2051 is a family member of 8051 micrcontroller. Pin no 20 is connected to the positive supply. Pin no 10 is connected to the negative supply. Pin no 1 is act as a reset pin. On this pin we use one capacitor and resistor network. Two infra red sensor is connected as a collosion sensor. We using two infra red sensor and infra red sensor for a anti falling concept. These sensors are connected to the port p3.0, p3.3 and port p3.4. On this pin we directly connect a photodiode as a receiver sensor. In fra red led is directly connected with the 5 volt supply through 100 ohm resistor. Port p1.0 , p1.1 and port p1.2 and port p1.3 is output pin. IN this controller we use negative input and negative output circuit. Output of the microcontroller is connected to the four different optocoupler connectivity. Output of the optocoupler is inverted by the inverter circuit. Output of the inverter circuit is connected to the H bridge circuit. Here we use H bridge circuit to control the direction of the motor. IN this project we use two slow speed motor so with the help of dc motor we move forward and reverse the robot.. when we insert the battery then robot move to forward. If there is any obstruction on one sensor then one photodiode is get a signal and so that negative signal is applied to the photodiode . Photodiode receive the signal and so on microcontroller stop one motor and so that robot move to another direction. Now if the robot sense a bit then depth sensor active and stop both the motor. Now when both motor stop and with small delay motor reverse back to few step . after taking back few step robot changes its direction to right and again move forward. So when robot falling any depth then takes back few step and changes its direction and again go forward
We design this vehicle for future automation. Assume that if any small robot is moving on the table then can it is possible robot can not fall from the table, when robot move to the end of table then robot sense the depth and at that time depth sense provide a signal to the microprocessor to stop the vehicle . It is also possible to reverse the robot on the table by using reversing the motor. When we reverse the motor then again we require a one more depth sensor on the back side of the robot.
For the depth sensing we use infra red rays . one photodiode and one infra red is connected in pair with the vehicle. We design the circuit so that when any car move on the track then both infra red sensor, front and back reflect the rays and circuit sense the track. If the track is okay then circuit sense the rays and move the motor forward. When the vehicle move forward then if the track is going to the depth region then infra red rays are not reflected from the surface and due to that processor get a signal and . vehicle move backward automatically.
In this project we use ic 89c2051 microcontroller as a main processor. IC 89c2051 is a 20 pin microcontroller. This ic is a 20 pin version of 40 pin main atmel ic 89c51 microcontroller. We program this ic with the help of computer. Software is written in the assembley language and then transfer into the blank ic with the help of programmer kit.
In addition with the anti falling concept we use auto collosion concept.
In this project we show that how we design a future vehicle for automation. By using this automation we design the vehicle for auto path finding. We use this concept for remote area. Where we control the robot from remote are . Or we send the machine in any small tunnel. If we fit a wireless camera with this robot then it is possible for us to capture the all detail of facing area.
In this project we use two sensor. These sensor are reflective type sensor. When infra red rays reflective from any surface then we sense this reflective signal and pass to the microcontroller circuit. Microcontroller circuit sense the input signal and compare this signal with the other eye signal and then change the direction of one motor. When there is no deflection from any sensor then there is no signal from the sensor and at that time both the motor of the vehicle run smoothly to the forward direction.
In this vehicle we use total two motor for the forward and reverse direction. When one motor stop then vehicle change its direction for a short second and then again came to the origional position.
Main circuit is based on the microcontroller. Here in this project we use 89c2051 microcontroller as a main processor. Motor’s control by a H bridge circuit. For two motor we use two H bridge circuit. Here in this project we use two slow speed dc gear motor .
DC GEAR MOTOR.:
The two types of motor’s that you are likely to use in robotic adventure are DC motors and RC servo motors. The most common motor for robotics is the DC gear motor, which works by gearing down a fast Dc motor to make the motor turn at a slower speed and give the motor a higher torque suitable for robot locomotion.
A dc gear motor is basically a regular DC motor with a special gear box attached to the output shaft . Your robot electrical drive circuitary can control the dc gear motor to rotate the wheels of your robot for locomotion.
You can get a DC motor without a gear head, but generally these are too fast ( around 15,000 RPM). For a robot to move at a reasonable rate you have to gear down a DC motor to about 30 to 80 RPM . When you gear down a DC motor, you get a slower speed and plenty of torque.