We know the about Black box in aeroplane.We are making same project for car. In which we will use different type of sensors. We will use IR,LPG,LDR,water and Fire sensors.
In this project we will make project on black box of car. We will make security system for car. It will detect the fire in car then it will give signal on indicator and we will use 16*2 LCD for display fault on LCD. Here in this project we also show that how we detect a LPG gas or any type of gases and if we detect a gases then alarm is on, doors glasses will open or doors will open and the same time lcd display shows the gas detection display . lpg gas sensors are for future point of view, because of increasing cost of petrol, most of car owner are using LPG gas car kit/ If the gas is detected then relay is off and break the supply of gas applied to the vehicle or we can control any type of electrical connection on or off by this relay operated logic.
Main part of this project is gas sensor.
Here we use TGS gas sensor. This sensor is a 6 pin sensor . Top and bottom of the sensor is covered with 100 mesh stainless stell wire cloth. The heart of the sensor is the cylindrical form in the middle of the unit. The cylinder is a ceramic material with the SnO2 material deposited on its surface. The heater coil is located inside the ceramic cylinder. The heater has a resistance of 38 ohms.
Output of the gas sensor is connected to npn transistor and the ic 555 as a monostable trigger ic. Sensor gives high signal to npn transistor. Transistors emitter is connected with ground. And collector connected with NE555 timer. Timer gives output to npn transitor. Second npn transistor gives low signal to mcrcontroller. We know microcontroller default o/p is high.As the sensor is detect a gas then ic 555 activate automatically and then output of the ic 555 is connected to the microcontroller circuit.
In the microcontroller circuit we use ic 89s51 controller. Use of this is is to control the one or many relay logic and at the same time show the message on the lcd display. If no gas is detected then display shows a everything is ok . If the gas is detected then show a warning message on the screen and at the same time relay off the supply unit.
Fire detection circuit- In Fire detection circuit we used thermocouple as a sensor. Thermocouple works at nearly 70 deg to 90 deg. If it detect high temperature in your car ( that can be in engine). Then thermocouple get expanded. And give low signal to microcontroller. It is connected with the microcontroller at pin 1.3
In ldr circuit we used two transistors npn 548. we get two inputs at base of first npn transistor. A variable resistance of value 5k connected with base of first tr.
Second input to transistor is connected to vcc via LDR. LDR is of 50ohm when get max. light at base of LDR. When npn will get high signal at basethen it will get activated. Transoistors collector is connected with VCC and emitter connected with base of other npn transistor. Now other npn transistors collector connected with microcontroller and emitter connected with ground. It connected with pin 1.4 of mcu.
as there is no water sensor available in the market. We used twires for water connectivity purpose. One wire is connected with mcu at pin no p1.2 and other wire connected with ground. It give low signal to mcu when connected to each other via water.
It can be used for moisture check in mats and rain detection.
IR circuit :
There is one transmitter and other reciver. Transmitter is IR LED of size 5mm.
We bias in forward bias. i.e. positive is connected with VCC via 470E resistance. And –ve is connected to ground.
In reciver side we used IR photodiode. It works in reverse bias. Negative of IR connected to positive and positive end is grounded .we take output from negative pin of sensor. We used 10k E pull up resistor to make negative end sensor high. When they are in front of each other theb it will give low signal to mcu.
Gas sensor interface.
Schimtt trigger circuit.
Relay on/off control
IN the gas sensor interface we use gas sensor as a input logic. We attach one ic 555 as with this sensor . Here ic 555 work as a monostable timer. Sensor output is connected to the ic 555 pin no 2 via npn transistor. Pin no 2 is a negative trigger ic. When sensor activate then positive output is available and this positive output is converted into negative with the help of the NPN transistor. Output of the NPN transistor is now connected to the pin no 2 of the ic 555. Pinno 4 and 8 of the ic 555 is connected to the positive supply. Pin no 1 is connected to the ground pin. Pin no 7 is the output pin. Pin no 6 and 7 is the time constant pin. Pin no 6 and 7 provide a time constant option. When ic 555 works then output is available on the pin no 3 . Now this output is switching by the further NPN transistor.One led is also connected to the transistor circuit. Output of the npn transistor is available on the collector point. This output from the collector of NPN is now connected to the microcontroller pin no 1 which is port p1.0. Pin no 40 of the controller is connected to the positive supply. We supply a 5 volt regulated power supply on this pin. For regulated power supply we use one step down transformer . Step down transformer step down the voltage from 220 volt ac to 9 volt ac. This ac is converted into dc with the help of the rectifier circuit. Here we use two diode as a full wave rectifier. Output of the rectifier is now converted into 5 volt regulated supply with the help of 7805 regulator. IC 7805 regulator provide a 5 volt constant supply to pin no 40 of the ic. Pin no 20 is connected to the ground pin. LCD is connected to the port 0. Here we use 2 by 16 lcd for display. 2 by 16 means 2 line and 16 character.
Two output is available from the controller from port P2. One output is buzzer and second output is relay output. Buzzer is on when circuit sense a gas and relay switch off the supply chain.
To control a relay we use two transistor circuit. Output from the controller is drive the pnp transistor through 1 k ohm resistor. Collector of the pnp transistor is connected to the npn transistor through 1 k ohm resistor. Collector of the NPN transistor is connected to the relay coil directly. . Here relay is for the switching purpose only . As the transistor is on relay is on and relay break the contact of supply chain.
STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 220 TO 9 VOLT AC
DIODE IN 4007(2)
CAPACITOR ,1000 MFD (1), 33 MFD (1), 27 PF (2).
NPN TRANSISTOR BC 548(4)
PNP TRANSISTOR BC 558(2)
RESISTOR 100 K (2), 1 K (4), 470 OHM (1), 10 K (3)
PULL UP RESISITOR ARRAY. 10 K (1)
VARIABLE RESISTOR 4.7 K (1)
RELAY 12 VOLT