In this project we will make solar water heater . Its is our project in this semester. We will charge battery with power supply charging circuit. Then we will run heater from battery. Problem will be to run heating element from battery. in this we will connect a push to on switch with timer circuit which will provide time delay. PIN 2 is input pin of timer. A Transistor npn 548 transistor is connected with the output of Timer 555. Output of 548 npn transistor connected to Relay drive circuit. Water pump is connected to with Relay. Whole supply of pump will be received from Battery 12v 7Ah. We will connect solar pump output with Charging circuit for battery. Battery output will be converted to 12 v to 220 v Step up circuit.
A solar charger differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users, and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users. The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short—5–15 minutes being typical for smaller units—but sufficient to allow time to bring an auxiliary power source on line, or to properly shut down the protected equipment.
While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption and/or data loss. UPS units range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200 VA rating) to large units powering entire data centers, buildings, or even cities
The primary role of any UPS is to provide short-term power when the input power source fails. However, most UPS units are also capable in varying degrees of correcting common utility power problems:
Power failure: defined as a total loss of input voltage.
Surge: defined as a momentary or sustained increase in the mains voltage.
Sag: defined as a momentary or sustained reduction in input voltage.
Spikes, defined as a brief high voltage excursion.
Noise, defined as a high frequency transient or oscillation, usually injected into the line by nearby equipment.
Frequency instability: defined as temporary changes in the mains frequency.
Harmonic distortion: defined as a departure from the ideal sinusoidal waveform expected on the line.