The project is designed to develop a density based dynamic traffic signal system. The signal timing changes automatically on sensing the traffic density at the junction. Traffic congestion is a severe problem in many major cities across the world and it has become a nightmare for the commuters in these cities.
Conventional traffic light system is based on fixed time concept allotted to each side of the junction which cannot be varied as per varying traffic density. Junction timings allotted are fixed. Sometimes higher traffic density at one side of the junction demands longer green time as compared to standard allotted time.
The proposed system using a microcontroller of 8051 family duly interfaced with sensors, changes the junction timing automatically to accommodate movement of vehicles smoothly avoiding unnecessary waiting time at the junction.
The sensors used in this project are IR and photodiodes are in line of sight configuration across the loads to detect the density at the traffic signal. The density of the vehicles is measured in three zones i.e., low, medium, high based on which timings are allotted accordingly.
Further the project can be enhanced by synchronizing all the traffic junctions in the city by establishing a network among them. The network can be wired or wireless. This synchronization will greatly help in reducing traffic congestion.
RFID based car parking uses a microcontroller along with sensing circuits monitoring entry and exit of cars. The car owners are allowed an entry only when their RFID card is swiped .
The amount in the card automatically gets reduced with a display indication besides indicating the available number of parking. For loading the amount 2 push buttons are used SW1 for Rs500 and SW2 for 300.Example is shown for 2 cards but it can be extended to many numbers.
An H-bridge arrangement operates the entry and exit boom motors operating clockwise and anticlockwise for opening and closing. A buzzer sound comes while the card is swiped.
Upon every entry of a car the parking availability gets reduced by one number while every exit the number increases. A standard power supply is used. A seven segment display displays the status. A switch is used in place of RFID for minimizing the project cost.