In this project we will control stepper motor using Micro switches. We will work use push to on switches. Stepper motor normally used in Dot Matrix printers , plotters and cutters. Mainly its applications are in Cotton and paper industries. It is also used in Robotics Control because of its accuracy and precision. Commercially it is very useful overall. With the help of microcontroller. We control the output devices in the receiver circuit. For this purpose we use two microcontroller in this project. Here we use ATMEL microcontroller in the transmitter and receiver circuit. In atmel series , here we use ic 89s52 as a main processor.. and IC 89s52 in the receiver circuit as a main receiver circuit..
Proect is Divided in to following Parts:-
- Power Supply Circuit 5v and 12V DC- Transformer, rectifier , Filter and Power Supply indicator.
- Microcontroller Circuit- 89s52 circuit- It contain crystal and Reset Circuit .
- Current Amplifier Circuit To drive Stepper motor- As a amplifier- it is required because microcontroller have not large current to drive stepper motor.
In the 89s52 microcontroller only two ports are available.. port p1 and port p3. We connect all the switches and output infra red led is connected to the port p3
Pin no 12 to pin no 19 is port 1 ouput pins. On this pins we connect a push to on switches . One point of the switch is connected to the pins of the microcontroller and other pin is connected to the ground pin. Port p1.0 and port p1.1 is special pins of this microcontroller, so we connect a two pull up resistor to this pins.
Pin no 40 is connected to the positive supply. Pin no 20 is connected to the negative supply. Pin no 1 is connected to the reset components via one capacitor and resistor 10 k in series. These two components auto reset the micrcontroller on power on .
MICROCONTROLLER 89s52- 1nos.
ULN2003 IC Amplifier- 2nos.
10 K 11 Pc
50 K 2 Pc VARIABLE
1 K VARIABLE
2.2K 1 Pc
470 OHM 1Pc
22 PF 2 Pc
10 MFD 1 PC
PUSH TO ON SWITCH 2 PC.
STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 9-0-9
DIODE IN 4007( 4Pc)
10K OHM VARIABLE RESISTOR
List of activities to be carried Out to complete the Project-
- In First weeks I will collect study material and circuit diagram. I will finalized circuit and detail.
- In next week I will test circuit on simulation softare proteus or bread board. Proteus is simulation software.
- In Next we will make PCB on copper clad Board.
- After it we will do programming and soldering.
- After soldering we will Test circuit.
- If there will be any problem then we will do repair of it.
- After completion of project we will make report.
Easy to fabricate
Look around. Notice the smart “intelligent” systems? Be it the T.V, washing machines, video games, telephones, automobiles, aero planes, power systems, or any application having a LED or a LCD as a user interface, the control is likely to be in the hands of a micro controller!
Measure and control, that’s where the micro controller is at its best.
Micro controllers are here to stay. Going by the current trend, it is obvious that micro controllers will be playing bigger and bigger roles in the different activities of our lives.
So where does this scenario leave us? Think about it……
The world of Micro controllers
What is the primary difference between a microprocessor and a micro controller? Unlike the microprocessor, the micro controller can be considered to be a true “Computer on a chip”.
In addition to the various features like the ALU, PC, SP and registers found on a microprocessor, the micro controller also incorporates features like the ROM, RAM, Ports, timers, clock circuits, counters, reset functions etc.
While the microprocessor is more a general-purpose device, used for read, write and calculations on data, the micro controller, in addition to the above functions also controls the environment.
We have used a whole lot of technical terms already! Don’t get worried about the meanings at this point. We shall understand these terms as we proceed further
For now just be aware of the fact, that all these terms literally mean what they say.
Bits and Bytes
Before starting on the 8051, here is a quick run through on the bits and bytes. The basic unit of data for a computer is a bit. Four bits make a nibble. Eight bits or two nibbles make a byte. Sixteen bits or four nibbles or two bytes make a word.
1024 bytes make a kilobyte or 1KB, and 1024 KB make a Mega Byte or 1MB.
Thus when we talk of an 8-bit register, we mean the register is capable of holding data of 8 bits only.
The 8051 developed and launched in the early 80`s, is one of the most popular micro controller in use today. It has a reasonably large amount of built in ROM and RAM. In addition it has the ability to access external memory.
The generic term `8×51` is used to define the device. The value of x defining the kind of ROM, i.e. x=0, indicates none, x=3, indicates mask ROM, x=7, indicates EPROM and x=9 indicates EEPROM or Flash.
A note on ROM
The early 8051, namely the 8031 was designed without any ROM. This device could run only with external memory connected to it. Subsequent developments lead to the development of the PROM or the programmable ROM. This type had the disadvantage of being highly unreliable.
The next in line, was the EPROM or Erasable Programmable ROM. These devices used ultraviolet light erasable memory cells. Thus a program could be loaded, tested and erased using ultra violet rays. A new program could then be loaded again.
An improved EPROM was the EEPROM or the electrically erasable PROM. This does not require ultra violet rays, and memory can be cleared using circuits within the chip itself.
Finally there is the FLASH, which is an improvement over the EEPROM. While the terms EEPROM and flash are sometimes used interchangeably, the difference lies in the fact that flash erases the complete memory at one stroke, and not act on the individual cells. This results in reducing the time for erasure.
Understanding the basic features of the 8051 core
Let’s now move on to a practical example. We shall work on a simple practical application and using the example as a base, shall explore the various features of the 8051 microcontroller.
Consider an electric circuit as follows,
The positive side (+ve) of the battery is connected to one side of a switch. The other side of the switch is connected to a bulb or LED (Light Emitting Diode). The bulb is then connected to a resistor, and the other end of the resistor is connected to the negative (-ve) side of the battery.
When the switch is closed or ‘switched on’ the bulb glows. When the switch