Gas Sensor detection- in this project we gas sensor will detect signal . it will provide signal to 555 timer.
Optical losses Measurement
In this project we will measure optical bend losses using microcontroller 8051 and will display it on 16*2 LCD. We are making this project because wedidnot find any circuit on internet. In brief firstly we convert the LOSSES into small voltage variations with the help of sensor, Output of the sensor is further converted into digital signal with the help of the ADC. IN this project we use ADC0809 . ADC 0809 is a 8 bit ADC and convert the any analogue signal into digital signal in 100 microsecond. To control the ADC we required a clock pulse, and 4 different signal . All this signal is provided by the controller. IN this project we use ic 89s51 as a main controller. IC 89s51 sense the output from the ADC in hex code. This HEX code is further converted into binary code with the help of program code inside the controller. IN the output device we use LCD display . LCD display display the contents of the display with the help of the ASCII code. ASCII CODE is a special code for displaying the character in the LCD. In the controller we convert the binary code in to ASCII codes with the help of the code conversion program.
TEMPERATURE SENSOR LM 335
LCD 2 BY 16
CRYSTAL 3.58 MHz
10 K 11 Pc
50 K 2 Pc VARIABLE
1 K VARIABLE
2.2K 1 Pc
470 OHM 1Pc
22 PF 2 Pc
10 MFD 1 PC
PUSH TO ON SWITCH 2 PC.
STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 9-0-9
DIODE IN 4007( 4Pc)
Mic connected to the pin no 2 of the ic 741 through capacitor .04 micro farad. Here capacitor block the dc voltage and pass only signal to the amplifier circuit. Pin no 6 is the output pin no of the ic 741. Pin no 3 is connected to zero voltage through voltage divider circuit. Here we use two 10 k ohm resistor as a voltage divider components. Two 10 k ohm resistor provide a zero reference voltage to the pin no 3 of the ic 741. Output of the ic 741 is further amplify by the two transistor circuit. Here we use one is npn and second is pnp transistor . Collector of the npn transistor is connected to the positive voltage and collector of the pnp transistor is connected to the negative voltage. Output of the transistor is available on the emitter point and this output voltage is connected to the speaker through one capcitor
Analogue signal from condenser mike is also feeded to the input of the op-amplifier using selector switch. Condenser mike convert the sound signal into electrical singal and this signal is coupled to the pin no 2 of the ic 741 through .04 microfarad capacitor. Resistor 10 k ohm provide a dc voltage to the condenser mike.
Gain of the amplifier or ap-amp is depend on the feedback connec mmmmted to the circuit. In this project we use one 10 k ohm resistor in series with the 100 k ohm variable resistor. With the help of this variable resistor we control the gain of the op-amplifier.
Now whatever we speak or press the switch this data is superimposed on the light of the laser.
In this project we will use wireless technology to monitor theft in Electricity meter. An electric meter is a device used for measuring the amount of electrical energy supplied to a residential or commercial building. Due to the increasing cost of electricity, tampering and security in electric meters has become a major concern for government agencies across the globe. Especially in populous countries like India and China tampering in electric meter and energy theft have become quite common.
Electric meters can be manipulated, thus causing them to stop, under-register or even bypassing the meter. Consumers, who are tamper with electric meter, effectively use power without paying for it. This theft or fraud can be dangerous as well as dishonest. Electric meter security is looked upon as major issue in many countries today.
Today, many power companies are installing remote-reporting meters which are capable of detect any tampering in electric meters, and discover energy theft. These smart power meters are particularly helpful in preventing energy theft and encouraging security in electric meters.
A large portion of a country’s revenue is lost due to the high density of tampering and security in electric meters. Hence it becomes very important to detect tampering in electric meters to ensue proper billing. Electric meter readers are trained to spot signs of tampering. The consumers who tamper with electric meter may be charged each billing period with the maximum rate until the tamper is removed, or in some cases the service may also be disconnected.
A common method of tampering with electric meters is by attaching magnets to the outside of the meter. These magnets prevent the alternating current from forming eddy currents in the rotor, by saturating the coils or current transformers.
Rectified DC loads causes mechanical but not electronic meters to under-register. As the DC currents do not cause the coils to make eddy currents in the disk, thus causing reduced rotation and a lower bill. Other ways of tampering in electric meters and playing with the electric meter security is to use some combinations of capacitive and inductive load, which also result in reduced or reverse motion.
Today, many modern meters can easily detect all of these effects. The owner of the meter normally secures the meter against tampering. Newer computerized meters usually have counter-measures against tampering. In order to find and fix power distribution problems, power companies today normally investigate discrepancies between the total billed and the total generated These investigations are an effective method of discovering tampering and security in electric meters.
Electricity distribution losses totalled Rs 70,000 crore in India.
In this project we will use remote monitoring method to prevent electricity theft. We will also try to present our method to electricity department.
We will use Radio technology to monitor wirelessly meter reading . if there will be difference in wirless reading and installed meter reading , then we can easily detect theft. In digital data user cant change value.
In this project we use one lcd screen. LCD screen display the balance amount every time, LCD screen not only show the balance amount but at the same time lcd display the unit consumption. When the balance is zero then output is off.
Now for continue the voltage we must need to recharge the unit from the mobile phone.
Our project is to be divided into 6 parts.
1. 5 VOLT REGULATED POER SUPPLY
2. MOBILE SIGNAL DECODER
3. BCD TO DECIMAL DECODER.
4. MICROCONTROLLER INTERFACE.
5. LCD INTERFACE .
6. RELAY INTERFACE CIRCUIT
Componets used in this project.
LCD FOR DISPLAY PURPOSE DISPLAY THE BALANCE AMOUNT AND UNIT CONSUME ( 2 LINE AND 16 CHARACTER)
MICROCONTROLLER. 89C51, 40 PIN CONTROLLER, 128 BYTE RAM, 4 K BYTE RAM. USED HERE FOR LCD DISPLAY AND START STOP FUNCTION. CHECK THE BALANCE AND CONTROL THE LOAD AS PER THE BALANCE.
IC 8870 , DTMF DECODER IC.
IC 8870 PROVIDE A GSM INTERFACE WITH THIS CIRCUIT. DUE TO THIS IC WE DECODE THE CALL THE PROVIDE A BALANCE IN THE ENERGY METER AUTOMATICALLY.
IC 74154 IS A BCD TO DECIMAL DECODER ATTACH WITH THE MICROCONTROLLER TO INTERFACE WITH THE DTMF DECODER
5 VOLT REGULATED POWER SUPPLY TO PROVIDE A REGULATED VOLTAGE TO THE MICROCONTROLLER UNIT.
5 VOLT REGULATED POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT.
In this project firstly we use one step down transformer. Step down transformer step down the voltage from 220 volt Ac to 12 volt Ac. This Ac voltage is further converted into DC with the help of rectifier circuit. In rectifier circuit we use four diode. All the diodes are arranges as a bridge rectifier circuit. Output of this rectifier is pulsating Dc. To convert this pulsating DC into smooth dc we use one capacitor as a filter components. Capacitor converts the pulsating Dc into smooth DC with the help of its charging and discharging effect.
Output of the rectifier is now regulated with the help of IC regulator circuit. In this project we use positive voltage regulator circuit. Here we use three pin regulator. Output of this regulator is regulated voltage. If we use 7805 regulator then its means its is 5 volt regulator and if we use 7808 regulator then its means that it is 8 volt regulator circuit. In this project we use 5 volt dc regulated power supply for the complete circuit. Separate 9 volt dc power supply is used for the relay coil
In the DTMF decoder circuit we use one DTMF decoder circuit to interface the mobile unit with this project. We dial the number of the phone connected to the energy meter then phone is automatic on and no we press a button 1 or button 2 to enter a value of 50 to 100 Rs in the meter. For this purpose we must need a mobile interface circuit with out project. . In this interface circuit we use one main ic 8870. This ic 8870 decode the dtmf pulses into bcd pulse . This bcd pulses is further converted into decimal unit with the help of bcd to decimal decoder circuit.. For the bcd to decimal decoder circuit we use ic 74154 to decode the bcd signal to decimal signal.
IC 8870 is a DTMF (dual tone multiple frequency) decoder .It converts dtmf pulse into the equivalent BCD signal. Pin no. 18 and 10 of this IC are connected to the positive supply. This positive supply is from the 5 volt regulator circuit. Pin no. 9,5,6 are connected to the negative supply. Signal from the telephone line is in the form of dtmf pulse is applied to pin no. 2 of this IC through 2.2k ohm resistor and .1mfd capacitor. This signal is also connected to pin no. 3 through 100k ohm resistor. Pin no. 7 and 8 are connected to a crystal of frequency 3.7945 mh. Pin no. 16 and 17 of this IC is reset pin. Pin no. 11,12,13,14 are the BCD output of this IC.
Advantages of Using Remote Method-
1. One time investment
2. It will save money of employees those are taking door to door reading.
3. Its not possible to interrupt wireless data
4. Easy to implement
5. Flexible system
STEP DWON TRANSFORMER. 220 TO 9 VOLT AC 1 PC
DIODE IN 4007 2 PC
CAPACITOR 1000mfd 1PC
10 MFD, 1 PC
22 PF 2 PC
.1 ( 104) MFD 2PC
8870 DTMF DECODER.
74154 BCD TO DECIMAL DECODER.
LCD 2 BY 16
BC 548 NPN
BC 558 PNP
12 VOLT DC SINGLE POLE SINGLE THROW
P.C.B COPPER CLAD BOARD ( GENERAL)
New project ideas will be appreciated.
Suggest new project ideas and win prizes.
Innovative solutions welcome new ideas.
Some new projects are
Electricity theft detection
Automatic mete tempering detection and sms alert
Rf dc motor speed contril using pwm
Matlab based car detection and control using serial port
Image enhencement based security
Live camera based object detection using matlab