this project is minor project for engineering and school students for learning
Optical voice and data Transmitter and Receiver circuit
IR voice and data transmitter and receiver circuit
Laser voice and data circuit
In this project we control railway crossing system automatically. In this project we use total three control systems.
Both side Barrier of Train
PIR security For person or vehicle in between Crossing
Auto open and close railway gate . this provision is very important version also. By using this technique we not only save the valuable life of human being but provide a smart modification in railway automation. Opening and closing of this door is provide by the stepper motor logic. Here we use stepper motor for opening and closing the door automatically. When we use this option then we use magnetic reed sensor for this purpose. By using this technique when train sense the magnetic sensor then railway gate is automatic open and automatic closed. For opening and closing the door we use two reed sensor. In this project we will use two IR sensor for train detection. So that crossing should open and close according to train only.
Two barriers- there will be barrier motors on both side of crossing. Normally students make project with barrier on one side only. In this project we will make barrier DC geared motors on both side of Crossing. We will use Dc geared motors On both side of crossing. We will use H bridge circuit for controlling motors. We will use 12v 100 RPM motors. We can use transistors or L293D ic for making h-bridge circuit.
We will Use PIR sensor for person detection in between the crossing during train detection. PIR are proximity infrared sensors. PIR should work only when any Train and person both detected. Other wise it should not work. PIR give High output when it works. It will give pulse to Transistor . Transistor will give low high pulse to Microcontroller. When MCU will detect pulse then it will give pulse to buzzer circuit. We will use transistorized circuit to drive buzzer.
Objective of Project-
Primary objective to make this project is – Person Going home to home to collect meter reading need not to collect reading by visit. He will have to send sms to particular meters and he will get Reading on His mobile.
Secondary to make electricity billing system Automated and protect .
Methodology– methodology behind the project first of all we will learn to make digital electricity meter using controller . secondly will connect controller with gsm modem serially using rs232 connection. We will learn how we cn send message from controller and how can we read message using AT commands. AT commands used to read and send message from gsm modem.
Introduction and Description of Project
The purpose of this project is the remote monitoring and control of the domestic energy meter by GSM NET-WORK. This system enables the Electricity Department to read the meter reading regularly without the person visiting each house. This can be achieved by the use of microcontroller unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter reading in its permanent ( non-volatile) memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM model for remote monitoring and control of Energy meter.
In this project we will make a wooden from having rack and pinion assembly to move shaft of dynamo. weight factor will move move a iron rod up and down having tack assembly. that rack assembly will move pinion gear connectd with other iron stick. when weight will move iron rod then iron stick will also rotate. A pulley will be also connected with iron stick to rotate shaft of dynamo. in this way we will get electrical output from dynamo.
In this project we will make automated room with different type of sensors. In which we will use different type of sensors. We will use IR, LDR,Moisture and Fire sensors. IR for Checking mail. LDR for lights. Moisture for garden water pump control. Fire sensor for security purpose.
It will detect the signal sensor then it will give signal on indicator and we will use 16*2 LCD for display fault on LCD. Here in this project we also show that how we detect a LPG gas or any type of gases and if we detect a gases then alarm is on, doors glasses will open or doors will open and the same time lcd display shows the gas detection display . lpg gas sensors are for future point of view, because of increasing cost of petrol, most of car owner are using LPG gas car kit/ If the gas is detected then relay is off and break the supply of gas applied to the vehicle or we can control any type of electrical connection on or off by this relay operated logic.
Main part of this project is gas sensor.
Here we use TGS gas sensor. This sensor is a 6 pin sensor . Top and bottom of the sensor is covered with 100 mesh stainless stell wire cloth. The heart of the sensor is the cylindrical form in the middle of the unit. The cylinder is a ceramic material with the SnO2 material deposited on its surface. The heater coil is located inside the ceramic cylinder. The heater has a resistance of 38 ohms.
Output of the gas sensor is connected to npn transistor and the ic 555 as a monostable trigger ic. Sensor gives high signal to npn transistor. Transistors emitter is connected with ground. And collector connected with NE555 timer. Timer gives output to npn transitor. Second npn transistor gives low signal to mcrcontroller. We know microcontroller default o/p is high.As the sensor is detect a gas then ic 555 activate automatically and then output of the ic 555 is connected to the microcontroller circuit.
In the microcontroller circuit we use ic 89s51 controller. Use of this is is to control the one or many relay logic and at the same time show the message on the lcd display. If no gas is detected then display shows a everything is ok . If the gas is detected then show a warning message on the screen and at the same time relay off the supply unit.
Fire detection circuit- In Fire detection circuit we used thermocouple as a sensor. Thermocouple works at nearly 70 deg to 90 deg. If it detect high temperature in your car ( that can be in engine). Then thermocouple get expanded. And give low signal to microcontroller. It is connected with the microcontroller at pin 1.3
In ldr circuit we used two transistors npn 548. we get two inputs at base of first npn transistor. A variable resistance of value 5k connected with base of first tr.
Second input to transistor is connected to vcc via LDR. LDR is of 50ohm when get max. light at base of LDR. When npn will get high signal at basethen it will get activated. Transoistors collector is connected with VCC and emitter connected with base of other npn transistor. Now other npn transistors collector connected with microcontroller and emitter connected with ground. It connected with pin 1.4 of mcu.
as there is no water sensor available in the market. We used twires for water connectivity purpose. One wire is connected with mcu at pin no p1.2 and other wire connected with ground. It give low signal to mcu when connected to each other via water.
It can be used for moisture check in mats and rain detection.
IR circuit :
There is one transmitter and other reciver. Transmitter is IR LED of size 5mm.
We bias in forward bias. i.e. positive is connected with VCC via 470E resistance. And –ve is connected to ground.
In reciver side we used IR photodiode. It works in reverse bias. Negative of IR connected to positive and positive end is grounded .we take output from negative pin of sensor. We used 10k E pull up resistor to make negative end sensor high. When they are in front of each other theb it will give low signal to mcu.
STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 220 TO 9 VOLT AC
DIODE IN 4007(2)
CAPACITOR ,1000 MFD (1), 33 MFD (1), 27 PF (2).
NPN TRANSISTOR BC 548(4)
PNP TRANSISTOR BC 558(2)
RESISTOR 100 K (2), 1 K (4), 470 OHM (1), 10 K (3)
PULL UP RESISITOR ARRAY. 10 K (1)
VARIABLE RESISTOR 4.7 K (1)
RELAY 12 VOLT
In this project we can control any electrical appliances through mobile or landline from any part of the country. In this project one base unit is connected to the basic landline in parallel with the land line phone.. When we want to control any electrical appliances through outer phone then first we dial the home number, bell is ringing and after few bell phone is automatic on and switch on the base unit to operate. Now we press the single digital excess code, if the excess code is ok then unit give a tone pulse and switch on the base unit. Now again we press the switch on/off code to on/off any electrical appliances. With the help of this code unit is on and base unit give a acknowledge pulse for on and off separately.
Complete circuit is divided into three parts.
In this project we will give power from PLC from solar panel. Solar panle will charge battery. From battery we will use 12v to 220v AC convertor circuit to give supply to other circuit.
In dtmf decoder circuit we use ic 8870 ic. IC 8870 is a dtmf decoder ic. IC 8870 converts the dual tones to corresponding binary outputs.
DTMF SIGNALLING. Ac register signaling is used in dtmf telephones, here tones rather than make/break pulse are used fro dialing, each dialed digit is uniquely represented by a pair of sine waves tones. These tones ( one from low group for row and another from high group fro column) are sent to the exchange when a digit is dialed by pushing the key, these tone lies within the speech band of 300 to 3400 hz, and are chosen so as to minimize the possibility of any valid frequency pair existing in normal speech simultaneously. Actually, this minimisator is made possible by forming pairs with one tone from the higher group and the other from the lower of frequencies. A valid dtmf signal is the sum of two tones, one from a lower group ( 697-940 Hz) and the other from a a higher group ( 1209-1663 Hz). Each group contains four individual tones. This scheme allows 10 unique combinations. Ten of these code represent digits 1 through 9 and 0. . tones in DTMF dialing are so chose that none of the tones is harmonic of are other tone. Therefore is no change of distortion caused by harmonics. Each tone is sent as along as the key remains pressed. The dtmf signal contains only one component from each of the high and low group. This significaly simplifies decoding because the composite dtmf signal may be separated with band pass filters into single frequency components, each of which may be handled individually.
DTMF DECODER CM8870
DECODER IC 74LS154
RELAYS- 180 OHM 12V
TRANSFORMER 12 V
DECADE COUNTER IC 4017
COPPER CLAD BOARD
Mic connected to the pin no 2 of the ic 741 through capacitor .04 micro farad. Here capacitor block the dc voltage and pass only signal to the amplifier circuit. Pin no 6 is the output pin no of the ic 741. Pin no 3 is connected to zero voltage through voltage divider circuit. Here we use two 10 k ohm resistor as a voltage divider components. Two 10 k ohm resistor provide a zero reference voltage to the pin no 3 of the ic 741. Output of the ic 741 is further amplify by the two transistor circuit. Here we use one is npn and second is pnp transistor . Collector of the npn transistor is connected to the positive voltage and collector of the pnp transistor is connected to the negative voltage. Output of the transistor is available on the emitter point and this output voltage is connected to the speaker through one capcitor
Analogue signal from condenser mike is also feeded to the input of the op-amplifier using selector switch. Condenser mike convert the sound signal into electrical singal and this signal is coupled to the pin no 2 of the ic 741 through .04 microfarad capacitor. Resistor 10 k ohm provide a dc voltage to the condenser mike.
Gain of the amplifier or ap-amp is depend on the feedback connec mmmmted to the circuit. In this project we use one 10 k ohm resistor in series with the 100 k ohm variable resistor. With the help of this variable resistor we control the gain of the op-amplifier.
Now whatever we speak or press the switch this data is superimposed on the light of the laser.